Monolithic Construction Technology

Monolithic Concrete Construction Technology with Aluminum Form Work - CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY MIVAN SHUTTERING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY:

Mivan Shuttering is a fast-paced construction technique which offers strength and durability to a building by use of Aluminum Formwork System.

With a growing focus on affordable homes and Housing for All, Increasingly emphasizing on the use of new and innovative construction techniques. One such technology is Mivan shuttering which is being promoted for its ability to aid mass construction activity.

Its use is being promoted in India to realize the most ambitious government scheme – Housing for All by 2022.

Construction Technique

Setting up the wall Reinforcement steel – The wall reinforcing with steel is used to give a structure to the building and support the concrete until they gain half of the required strength. The aluminum formworks are cast around the steel mesh, which is factory made and directly erected on the construction site.

Placement of Aluminum formwork – Along the wall reinforcing steel, prefabricated room sized walls and floor slabs are erected. These aluminum alloy slabs are accurately made and are easy to handle. Spaces for windows, ducts, doors and other features such as staircases, façade panels, Lofts slabs (Kitchen counter slab with supporting walls) and chajjas are also integrated in these structures. The forms are joint together using the pin and wedge system, which can be dismantled quickly after the concrete structure is made for vertical surfaces and even for horizontal surface with immediately propping systems.

Pouring of concrete – After casting the forms, high-quality concrete is poured such as SCC type concrete with good and acceptable flow rates specially designed with rich mix. This concrete takes the form and shape of the cast reaching nuke and corners of the form works easy , which is later removed to make way for a structure made entirely of cement concrete supported by wall reinforcing members. The aluminum forms can be reused at least 250 times, resulting in minimum waste from the construction site.

The resulting structure is accurate, smooth and finished. It has high tolerance and requires no further plastering. As a result, it saves time, effort and money.

Mivan Technology reduces the construction time by almost half in comparison to conventional practices. Since it has a set procedure to be followed accurately, it minimizes the need for skilled labour and completely eliminates labour intensive activities such as masonry and rendering."

On the structural front, the technology makes the buildings more seismic-resistant and durable. Since there are lesser number of joints, the building faces reduced leakages, hence requiring negligible maintenance.

There is uniformity in Mivan construction and the walls and slabs have a smooth finish. Moreover, the technology gives the scope to take out more carpet area in comparison to conventional techniques.

Uses of Mivan Formwork
  • 3S – System of Construction – Speed, Strength, Safety
  • Column and beam construction are eliminated
  • Walls and slabs are cast in one operation
  • Specially designed, easy to handle light weight pre-engineered aluminum forms
  • Fitting and erecting the portion of shuttering
  • Carrying out concreting of the walls and slabs together
  • Mivan formwork requires relatively less labour
  • More seismic resistance
  • Increased durability
  • Lesser number of joints and reduced leakages
  • Higher carpet area
  • Smooth finishing of wall and slab
  • Uniform quality of construction
  • Negligible maintenance
  • Faster completion


Construction of Affordable Houses Scheme in Valegerahalli Village 2nd&4th stage in Kengerihobli, Bangalore.
No of Houses:
Construction of 2BHK Housing Project at Sy No. 95 of Kanmineke Village, KengeriHobli Bangalore South Taluk on Lump Sum Turnkey Basis Based on Tender's Own Design under Two Cover System (Phase 2) & (Phase 3), Bangalore.
No of Houses:
Construction of 2 BHK Housing Project at Sy. No. 30 of Kommaghatta Village in KengeriHobli on Lump Sum Turnkey Basis, based on Tenderer's Own planning and Design under Two Cover System (Phase-I) , Bangalore.
No of Houses:
Construction of 2 BHK Housing Project at Sy. No. 30 of Kommaghatta Village in KengeriHobli on Lump Sum Turnkey Basis, based on Tenderer's Own planning and Design under Two Cover System (Phase-II) , Bangalore.
No of Houses:
Construction of 2BHK Housing unit at Sy. No. 115/1 of Kommaghatta Villageunder NadaprabhuKempegowda Layout on Lump sum Turnkey Basis, based on Tenderer's Own planning and Design under Two Cover System (Phase-III) , Bangalore.
No of Houses:
On Going
Construction of 2 BHK Housing Project Valagerhalli Phase-VI in Sy. No. 70, 101/3 & 102/2 under Gnanabharathi Layout 1st Block, KengeriHobli, Bangalore South Taluk, Bangalore on Lump Sum Turnkey Basis based on Tenderer's Own Planning and Design under Two Cover System
No of Houses:
On Going
Construction of 749 Nos of Family Quarters ( T-II-100, T-III-04 Nos, T-IV-30 Nos , T-V-15 Nos) and 3 Nos 240 men Barracks at Group Center , Kadarpur, Gurgaon Including W/s. S/I, Internal Electrical Installation, FireFighting, Passenger/ Goods lifts AND Miscellaneous E & M Service
On Going

Mivan Shuttering - Construction Photos Executed by Hombale Construction @ Vallagerahalli Phase II & IV during progress of works from Ground Level

Internal Finishes Photos


Sl No. Stages of works Days
1 Marking of surface for Form Panels placing and Reinforcement works 01st day
2 Vertical reinforcement works 02nd day
3 Vertical and Horizontal Form works Placing and Fixing in position with all accessories 03rd Day
4 Concreting works for the complete units including Walls, Chejja , Lofts and Top Slabs including the sunken portions 04th day
5 Wall Panel de-shuttering works after minimum 16 hours of continues curing and check on cube strength 05th day
6 Slab Panels de-shuttering works after a period of 36 hours/ 3 days of concrete time of completion with immediate re-propping the slabs with continuous curing methods/ Curing compounds on surface application. 06th day
Continuous curing will be carried out for 28 days as per standards, As these above days are for 1 Pouring unit of a house complete, same system will be continued in vertical and horizontal directions depending on the speedy of works systems.
Top views of the Ongoing Projects with Mivan shuttering of Vallagerhalli Phase 06 & Kommaghatta Phase -03



About Alternative technology for construction (Monolithic construction using Aluminium shuttering:

1. Preamble

These houses are intended to be constructed in multiples of 2 houses / day on an average using Cast-in-situ concrete for all structural elements with aluminium "Wall Ties and Forms" (WTF) shuttering system. This procedure is adopted as one of the "Fast Track Construction Techniques", resulting in reduced cycle time, better quality control at site, less material mobilization and minimum labor involvement.In this methodology walls, lintel, beam, slab, chejja& kitchen platform are cast monolithically

2. Fire rating

As height of the building exceeds 15.0m, 2.0 hours fire rating is considered in the analysis and design of proposed structure.

3. Shuttering System

The Shuttering system is precisely-engineered system fabricated using aluminum conforming to architectural and structural requirements. Wall forms are used for wall shuttering connected through wall ties and clamps. Slab forms are used to support slabs for concreting. Slab forms are supported on props at appropriate location based on structural requirements, easy deshutteringsequence and handling of materials. Aluminium being lighter, shuttering material is easy to handle and place in position. The resulting structure has a good quality surface finish and accurate dimensional tolerances.

4. Sequence of errection of Shuttering System:

Wall forms are placed after the wall rebarfabrication, electrical conduting/ PHE conduting are complete. Wall forms are connected through the wall ties and clamps. Then slab forms are erected and required rebar fabrication, electrical conditingin slab will be carried out. Now, the unit is ready for concreting in one pour.

5. Concrete

Self compacting concrete (SCC) of suitable grade as per mix design and structural requirements will be used for concreting. The inherent property of SCC is self compaction without segregation. Hence, SCC is more suitable for this technology. Free flow of concrete is maintained to be 600mm minimum,during the pour, to ensure the proper flow and compaction.

6. Deshuttering (Stripping of formwork)

Deshutteringof wall forms will be carried out after 16-24 hours of concreting as per structural requirements. Slab forms will be removed after 3 days and props will be refixed at appropriate locations immediately after removal of slab forms

7. Curing

Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from concrete during cement hydration. Curing is designed primarily to keep the concrete moist, by preventing the loss of moisture from the concrete during the period in which it is gaining strength. Curing has a major influence on the properties of hardenedconcrete such as durability, strength, water-tightness, wear resistance, volume stability, and resistance tofreezing and thawing.

Membranes forming curing compounds (BASF Mastercure-107) are the liquids which are applied directly onto the concrete surfaces and which then dry to form a relatively impermeable membrane that retards the loss of moisture from the concrete immediately after removal of wall shuttering. This compound is wax based.

Slab are cured by ponding method for a minimum of 7 days

8. Foundation

Conventional type of foundation such as wall strip foundation/Raft foundation based soil conditions will be used.

9. Advantages

This type of construction is adopted due to the following advantages;

  • Fast track construction technique
  • Total unit is made up of concrete, which is stronger, durable and solar heat resistant
  • Forms can be custom made to the requirements
  • Reduced cycle time
  • Better quality control at site as less material mobilization at site
  • Cost effective
  • Plastering can be completely avoided
  • Forms can be placed in position even with unskilled labour
  • Aluminium forms though costly works out to be cheaper with more number of repetation

Keeping in view the above advantages with the alternate technology, this construction technology is more suitable for this project.

About design procedures for monolithic construction:

RCC is the primary material used in this construction. In conventional methods, RCC walls are cast first and slab is cast later. But, in this technology both walls and slabs are cast simultaneously. Walls are designed as shear walls using limit state method as per the standard design equations given in IS13920 and IS 456. Slabs are being designed as per IS 456. Element thickness (Walls, slabs and beams) are chosen based on fire rating and structural requirements. Limit state of strength is used for the structural design of various elements of the housing units. Limit state of serviceability (Stability, Cracking and Deflection) will be followed to ascertain durability criteria.

RCC is intended to be used in the proposed project. Guidelines conforming to IS 456, IS13920, IS 1893, IS 875 are followed to design the structure. Concrete (Portland cement + 30% (maximum) GGBS) and concreting procedures will be followed as per the Indian standard guidelines and practices. GGBS/Flyash reduces the micro cracks and protect the rebar thus increases the durability of concrete. Thus the structure built will be sound enough to be used as habitat building.

Use of Software

NISA/CIVIL (Numerically Integrated Elements for System Analysis) developed by M/s Cranes software International or ETABS will be used to analyse and design the propsed structure.

About Indian Green Building Council requirements:

Best Indian practices would be followed during Planning, design and construction stages

10. Sustainable Architecture and Design

The orientation of the building will be worked out based the energy conservation (Solar heat and light), without disturbing the existing site features

11. Site selection and planning

Site selection and planning requires connectivity to infrastructure and public transport network. The proposed site is well connected to public transport network.

12. Water Conservation

Rain water harvesting is envisaged thus meeting the requirements of during scarcity days and recharging the source of water.

Dual piping system for treated water (Recycled water) and potable water will be adopted by using efficient plumbing fixtures.

Water Usage: As curing compounds are used, usage of water for curing is minimized during the time of construction.

13. Energy Efficiency

Solar passive building design concept will be followed in order to reduce or even eliminate the use of mechanical cooling and heating systems and the use of daytime artificial lighting.

These parameters may be ensured with proper planning of building, its orientation, and location of windows, doors and window shades.

14. Building Material and Resources
  • 30% GGBS/Flyash is used in concrete construction. The following are the advantages of GGBS/flyash in concrete
    1. Per unit embodied energy of concrete is reduced
    2. Use of GGBS increases the workability of the concrete.
    3. GGBS/flyash better protection to steel against corrosion
  • Windows are UPVC, thus usage of Wood is minimized
  • Flooring is Ceramic/Vitrified thus 100% recycled content in the form of recycled glass
  • Aluminium shuttering enables to use of more number of times and avoiding the use of ply wood as shuttering Appropriate artificial lighting system and their location may be used to reduce the electrical energy requirements
Code of Practice

List of generally applicable codes are as follows:

1 IS 456 Plain and reinforced concrete – codes of practice
2 IS : 875 (Part 1) Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures Part 1 Dead loads – Unit weights of building material and stored materials (Incorporating IS 1911 : 1967)
3 IS : 875 (Part 2) Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures : Part 2 Imposed loads
4 IS : 875 (Part 3) Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake loads) for buildings and structures part 3 Wind Loads
5 IS 1893 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures – Part
1 : General Provisions and Buildings
6 SP 16 Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS 456 : 1978
7 SP 34 Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and Detailing
8 IS 13920 Ductile Detailing of Reinforced concrete structures subjected to Seismic forces


Structural layout

Structuresare with Raft + Floors or Ground + floors are applicable. The height of the floors is 3.0m taken generally. Layout Dimensions as per the Architectural drawings are considered.

Material Properties

The following material properties have been used in Analysis and design

Grade of concrete M25& M30
Grade of reinforcement steel FE-500 & FE-500D
Density of concrete 2500 kg/m3
Poisons ratio 0.2
Young's modulus 27386 N/mm2
Structural Element Dimensions
RCC Walls 160mm minimum
Roof slab 125mm minimum (Changes upon design)
Toilet slabs are sunk by 400mm (Indian W/C) and 200mm (EWC)0.2

Strip footings/Raft Footings are designed for RC Walls. SBC of soil as per soil reportsto beassumed for design of foundation. A factor of 1.25 for SBC has been used while designingdue to seismic.

Finite Element Model

The Finite Element Model is created using NISA/CIVIL version 16, software, for performing structural analysis. Structure idealization is based on following considerations

RC Slab, RC Walls are modeled using four noded shell elements. RC columns and beams are 2 noded beam elements having 6 degrees of freedom per node.

Foundation system

The foundation is strip footings for wall or Raft foundation



The basic load cases and load combinations considered for the design of housing block is discussed here.

Basic Load cases

Following primary Load cases are considered

15. Load Case ID -1: Dead Loads (DL)

Self weight of the structure is automatically computed by the software. However, the components not modeled such as floor finishes have been applied as super imposed load on the structure

Self weight, Floor Finish = 1kN/m2, Additional Dead Load = 0.5 kN/m2 applied as pressure loading in –ve gravity direction (Global Z).

Sunken portions are filled with Aerated concrete/Cinder. Assuming 400mm sunk, density of Aerated concrete/Cinder 8kN/m3, 3.2kN/m2 has been applied as additional pressure loading in –ve gravity direction (Global Z) in sunken portions.

16. Load Case ID -2: Live Loads (LL)

Super imposed Live Load = 2kN/m2 applied as pressure loading in –ve gravity direction (Global Z) for all the floor slabs above stilt level. However, a live load of 3kN/m2 has been applied on corridors and staircase area.

Overhead RCC domestic tank and fire fighting overhead tanks are can be proposed at the center of the block depending upon the requirements.

17. Load Case ID -3: Wind Loads (WL) +X direction
Basic wind speed 33 m/s
K1 1.00
K2 1.05
K3 1.00
Design wind speed 33 x 1.0 x 1.05 x 1.0
34.65 m/s
Design wind pressure 720.37 N/m2

However, 1 kN/m2 is applied as pressure loading

18. Load Case ID -4: Wind Loads (WL) +Y direction

1kN/m2 applied as pressure loading

19. Load Case ID -5: Seismic Loads (SL) +X direction (For Ground + Floors)
Zone factor 0.10
Importance factor 1.0
Response reduction factor 5.0 for concrete
% Live loads considered during seismic weight calculation 25%
Soil Type Medium
Height of structure (Including foundation, overhead tank)
Base dimension parallel to the applied seismic force
  1. Fundamental Time Period is based on the assumption of "INFILL WALLS" i.e., T= 0.09 H/ √d, where H = in mts : Height of the building, d= in mts width of building. Hence T= 0.39s
  2. Only Pseudo static analysis has been performed as per Cl 7.8.1 of IS 1893 (Part:1) -2002. (Dynamic analysis is required for building above 90m height)
  3. Seismic Base shear Vb: Ah x W
    W - The total Seismic weight (Full Dead Load + 25% of the Live Load) of the building,
    Ah – Design horizontal acceleration spectrum value corresponding to the fundamental time in the respective direction
20. Load Case ID -6: Seismic Loads (SL) +Y direction (G +Floors)
Zone factor 0.10
Importance factor 1.0
Response reduction factor 5.0 for concrete
% Live loads considered during seismic weight calculation 25%
Soil Type Medium
Height of structure (Including foundation, overhead tank)
Base dimension parallel to the applied seismic force

Load Combinations

Referring to IS-456: Table 18

Table 1: For Member Design (Limit State of Collapse)
Load Case ID 501 (DL + LL) Load Case ID 510 1.5(DL+WL(-Y))
Load Case ID 502 1.5(DL+LL) Load Case ID 511 1.2(DL+LL+WL(+X))
Load Case ID 503 1.5(DL+SL(+X)) Load Case ID 512 1.2(DL+LL+WL(-X))
Load Case ID 504 1.5(DL+SL(-X)) Load Case ID 513 1.2(DL+LL+WL(+Y))
Load Case ID 505 1.5(DL+SL(+Y)) Load Case ID 514 1.2(DL+LL+WL(-Y))
Load Case ID 506 1.5(DL+SL(-Y)) Load Case ID 515 1.2(DL+LL+SL(+X))
Load Case ID 507 1.5(DL+WL(+X)) Load Case ID 516 1.2(DL+LL+SL(-X))
Load Case ID 508 1.5(DL+WL(-X)) Load Case ID 517 1.2(DL+LL+SL(+Y))
Load Case ID 509 1.5(DL+WL(+Y)) Load Case ID 518 1.2(DL+LL+SL(-Y))

Note: Load combination 501: DL + LL is not used in member design (Limit state of collapse). Foundation sizing is done by stripping off of the factors from the above load combinations by the software program. Thus, following sub load combinations are made automatically by the program.

Table 2: For Sizing of foundation
Load Case ID 502 (DL+LL) Load Case ID 511 (DL+LL+WL(+X))
Load Case ID 503 (DL+SL(+X)) Load Case ID 512 (DL+LL+WL(-X))
Load Case ID 504 (DL+SL(-X)) Load Case ID 513 (DL+LL+WL(+Y))
Load Case ID 505 (DL+SL(+Y)) Load Case ID 514 (DL+LL+WL(-Y))
Load Case ID 506 (DL+SL(-Y)) Load Case ID 515 (DL+LL+SL(+X))
Load Case ID 507 (DL+WL(+X)) Load Case ID 516 (DL+LL+SL(-X))
Load Case ID 508 (DL+WL(-X)) Load Case ID 517 (DL+LL+SL(+Y))
Load Case ID 509 (DL+WL(+Y)) Load Case ID 518 (DL+LL+SL(-Y))
Load Case ID 510 (DL+WL(-Y))
Boundary Conditions

Fixed boundary conditions (restraining both rotations and translations in all three directions) are applied below the Stilt columns.



Structural analysis is based on the linear elastic theory to calculate internal forces produced by design loads including forces induced due to deformations, using NISA/CIVIL analysis and design software package.

Minimum Thickness and Clear cover to main reinforcement:
Exposure Mild
Fire rating 2.0 Hours
Sl.No. Element Min. Dimension Cover Remarks
1 Slab 125mm 25mm
2 Beam 200mm 40mm to links
3 Column 300mm 40mm to links
4 Footings 50mm Minimum depth of foundation 2.0m
5 Walls 160mm 25mm Two face Rebar Minimum 0.4% Rebar
100mm 50mm Midside Rebar Minimum 1.0% Rebar
Structural Design

Structural design of structural members has been carried out as per Limit state design conforming to IS 456-2000.

Design of footings: Sizing of footings is done for serviceability condition. Structural design of footing is done for strength criteria. SBC of 12 T/Sqm has been assumed at a depth of 1.5m from EGL. M25/ M30 Grade of concrete & FE-500/ FE-500D Rebar are assumed. Footings are designedforG+ floors storey. Results are tabulated in the Appendix.

Design of shear wall: In plane and out of plane stress resultants in each wall is computed by integration of forces from software. These forces have been used to find out the structural strength conforming to IS 456 and IS 13920. M25/ M30 Grade of concrete FE-500/ FE-500D rebar are assumed. Shear walls are designed for G+floors.

Results of Design Calculations

Reinforcement in columns, Beams, Slab and Footing is calculated using software. Shear walls are computed as per IS13920 & IS 456.